Wine making dictionary

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Jan 2, 2010
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Below you will find a list of wine making terms and their definitions. I have done my best to include those pertinent and delete those that are not. I have tried to keep all informative yet in easy to understand language.

Should you come across a term you believe should be listed, or a term that is incorrect, please p.m. me and I will research it and consider it’s addition or correction.

Meaning bottled by. Will be on the label followed by relevant information concerning the bottler.

Abbreviation of alcohol by volume, most often listed on a wine label.

Acetic Acid
An organic acid that is a main ingredient in vinegar and is one reason for the spoilage of wine.

A Vinegar Producing Bacteria. This bacteria can be killed by the use of proper sanitation and Potassium Metabisulfite.

This compound gives wine it’s crisp taste. The four major acids are tartaric, malic, lactic and citric and are found in all grapes. These help to preserve, create the flavor and help to prolong the aftertaste.

Acid Blend
A blend of tartaric, malic and citric acids. All of which are important in the wine making process.

Acid Testing
Determining the acid level of a wine. Standards in the U.S. put acid ranges for white .65-.80%, red .60-.75%, rose .60-.65%, dessert grape .60-.70%, sherry .50-.65% and most other fruits .55-.65% tartaric acid. Extending beyond these ranges will result in your wine becoming to bitter or to flabby.

Acidity (fixed)
The predominant fixed acids found in wines are tartaric, malic, citric, and succinic These add a pleasing tartness to wine.

Air Lock
A device made either of glass or plastic that facilitates the escape of gas from a vessel yet hinders air and bacteria from passing through to the wine. A solution of water, sometimes containing potassium metabisulfite resides in the middle of the airlock.

As yeasts eat the sugar in the juice, alcohol is one of the by products given off. The alcohol remains in the juice which will now become wine.

A.P. Number
Abbreviation for “Amtliche Prüfungsnummer”, the official testing number displayed on a German wine label that shows that the wine was tasted and passed government quality control standards.

This is the puckery taste given to wines due to the tannins.

The abbreviation for the “Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau”, a U.S. government agency which is primarily responsible for the regulation of wines, sold and produced inside the U.S.


A cleaner and sterilizer used to wash bottles and equipment. Rinse with water afterwards. Never add to wine or beer.

A scaled graduation for a hydrometer or a saccharometer, used to read the specific gravity of liquids or the sugar content. Balling is the same as Brix.

Banana Soup
A substance made by simmering bananas (usually very ripe) with a small amount of water then added to a must for the addition of body into the wine.

A product used to cleaning wooden barrels.
Typically made of wood and used for the aging of wine, beer and other alcoholic beverages. The wood gives off some flavor to the contents.

A fining agent made of clay and used primarily for clearing white wines of sediment remaining in suspension.

Better Bottle
BetterBottle (registered Trademark) is a non-glass carboy that is strong, scuff resistant, easy to handle, basically unbreakable and virtually impermeable to oxygen.

The mixing of two or more wines together to improve the quality and/or enhance a wines taste. If one wine was slightly higher in ph it could be blended with one of a lower ph to create a better tasting wine. Mixing a bad wine with a good wine will not make for a better wine.

Blind Tasting
Tasting and evaluating or judging a wine without knowing what kind of wine it is.

An acronym for "Buyer's Own Brand" which would refer to a private label owned by the restaurant or retailer that sells that wine.

A Spanish wine cellar, and also refers to a seller of an alcoholic beverage.

The depth or substance of a wine. The lighter wines typically lack body. Some wine makers will add raisins or bananas (banana soup) to their musts to increase a wines body.

A bottle is a small container with it’s neck narrower than the body. Most wine bottles are nearly always made of glass because it is nonporous, strong, and aesthetically pleasing. They come in varying shapes and sizes with Bordeaux, burgundy and German being the most popular shapes. 375ml, 750ml and 1.5 liter being the most popular sizes.

Bottle Brush
Used for the cleaning of bottles and carboys. There are various lengths and shapes available. Typically the wine maker need only one bottle and one carboy brush.

Bottle Corker
Either a hand, bench or floor corker is used in the process of inserting corks into your wine bottles. Bench and floor corkers are easier than a hand corker. Typically the cork is squeezed then pushed into the bottle. A pleasure to have if you intend on bottling a lot of wine.

Bottle Tree
Used to allow the drying of wine bottles after they have been washed and sanitized. Wine, beer or champagne is filled in these bottles shortly after sanitization unless they are to be stored for future filling.

Bottle Washer
A device attached to a spigot allowing a spray of water into a bottle or carboy to hasten the rinsing process.

The process by which a liquid, usually wine or beer is racked into a bottle then topped off with either a cork, plug or screw cap.

The interaction between air and wine after a wine has been opened. Breathing may take place while the wine is decanting.

See Balling.

Bulk Age
The period of time where wine is contained within a large vessel, usually a carboy or barrel and allowed to age and mature. This process allows minimal air to wine space. Often the period where oak is added to glass carboys to give the wine an (aged in) barrel flavor. Typical aging for fruit and white wines are 6 months or longer and reds one to two years or more.

A rubber stopper with a hole drilled in it for the insertion of an airlock to allow any gas to escape yet prevent bacteria from entering the carboy.


Calcium Carbonate
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rock in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, pearls, and eggshells. It is used to lower acidity in wine.

Camden Tablets
Potassium Metabisulfite in tablet form. Typically one campden tablet is used per 1 gallon of must or wort to kill and inhibit the growth of unwanted bacteria. Ten campden tablets equal one level teaspoon of potassium metabisulfite.

Cane Pruning
Cane pruning is when one or two canes from a vine's previous year's growth are cut back to six to fifteen buds which will be the coming growing seasons grape producers.

Italian term for winery.

The plastic or foil that covers the cork and part of the neck of a wine bottle.

Carbonic Maceration
Whole and uncrushed grapes are fermented in a sealed vat containing a layer of carbon dioxide. This results in fruity, soft and distinct red wines. These wines have little tannin and are immediately drinkable.

Formally water containers these glass jugs range in common sizes of 1, 3, 5, and 6 gallons. Here you may finish fermentation, or clear and bulk age wine. An airlock is placed at the mouth to facilitate the remaining gasses to escape the wine.

Carboy Bung
See Bung

French term for grape variety. When it appears on a wine label it will usually refer to the varietals used to make the wine.

Champagne flute
A piece of stemware having a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl on top.

The process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content after fermentation. The technique is named after its developer, the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal.[1] This process is not intended to make the wine sweeter, but rather to provide more sugar for the yeast to ferment into alcohol.

Generally a winery in Bordeaux, although the term is sometimes used for wineries in other parts of the world, such as the Barossa Valley.

A French term for a wine that falls between the range of a light red wine and a dark rosé

British name for Bordeaux wine. Is also a semi-generic term for a red wine in similar style to a Bordeaux.

An Italian term for the historical or "classic" center of a wine region--sometimes located in the heart of a DOC.

Coates Law of Maturity
A principle relating to the aging ability of wine that states that a wine will remain at its peak (or optimal) drinking quality for as long as it took to reach the point of maturity. For example, if a wine is drinking at its peak at 1 year of age, it will continue drinking at its peak for another year.

Commercial wine
A mass produce wine aimed for the wide market of wine drinkers made according to a set formula, year after year. These wines tend to emphasis broad appeal and easy drinkability rather than a terroir or craftsmanship.

Cordone Training
A method of vine training. Unlike, cane pruning where the trunk itself is the only permanent, inflexible piece of the vine, vines where cordon training is used have one or two woody arms extending from the top of the trunk. These are then spur pruned.

A wine bottle stopper that is made from the bark of a tree better known as a cork oak. Typically the best corks come from Spain.

A vessel, usually a 5 or 6 gallon bucket with lid and an airlock containing potassium metabisulfite in a jar for the purpose of sanitizing corks and other wine making parts.

See Bottle Corker.

A tool, comprising a pointed metallic helix attached to a handle, for drawing (removing) corks from bottles.

French term for the hillside or slopes of one contiguous hill region.

French term for the hillside or slopes of a hill region that is not contiguous.

Country wine
A quality level intermediate between table wine and quality wine, which in France is known as vin de pays and in Italy as Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) . Also a synonym for Fruit wine.

French sparkling wine not made in Champagne region.

1) A device used to remove juice from fresh picked grapes or other fruits. 2) A crusher can also be a device for the crushing of camden tablets to aide in the disolving in a liquid.

The French term for the period of time during alcoholic fermentation when the wine is in contact with the solid matter such as skin, pips, stalks, in order to extract colour, flavour and tannin. See maceration.

French term, meaning vat or tank. On wine labels it is used to denote wine of a specific blend or batch.

French term, along with cuvier that refers to the building or room where fermentation takes place. Essentially, the room, building, grange, barn, garage or shed, or other building, used for "making wine." When the grapes are first picked, they arrive at the cuverie.

A mead fermented with the addition of apples or cider.


Refers to a process in which the must of a white wine is allowed to settle before racking off the wine, this process reduces the need for filtration or fining.

The process of pouring wine from its bottle into a decanter to separate the sediment from the wine.

A technique done to facilitate the removal of built up gas released by the yeast during fermentation. Degassing may be done via negative pressure in the bottle or carboy, or inserting a paddle into the wine with quick and brief spins. Usually attached to a drill.

A glass container that typically holds larger quantities of wine such as 5 to 10 gallons (19 -38 litres).

Dessert wine
Varies by region. In the UK, a very sweet, low alcohol wine. In the US by law, any wine containing over 15% alcohol.

The abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata, or "controlled place name." This is Italy's designation for wine whose name, origin of grapes, grape varieties and other important factors are regulated by law. It is also the abbreviation for Portugal's highest wine category, which has the same meaning in that country.

German for ice wine, a dessert wine made from frozen grapes. See “Ice Wine”

Élevé en fûts de chêne
French phrase that may appear on wine labels to denote that the wine has been aged in oak barrels.

Estate winery
A U.S. winery license allowing farms to produce and sell wine on premisis, sometimes known as a farm winery.

Abbreviation for flavor pack. Wine kits typically include these to sweeten and enhance the flavor of a fully fermented wine.

Fermentation Inhibitor
A chemical such as Potassium Sorbate or Potassium Metabisulfite that kills or prevents yeasts from fermenting.

Used for the removal of sediment in wine or beer.

Fine wine
The highest category of wine quality, representing only a very small percentage of worldwide production of wine.

Fining Agent
Used to assist in the clearing of wines after fermentation is complete. Products such as bentonite, drifine isinglass, gelatin, SuperKleer KC,silica gel and Sparkeloid are all examples of these agents. These products work better when wine has already been degassed.

A glass bottle that holds two litres of (usually an inexpensive) table wine.

Fortified wine
Wine to which alcohol has been added, generally to increase the concentration to a high enough level to prevent fermentation.

Italian term for a semi-sparkling wine.

Fruit Press
A device used to chop up fruit and drop into a basket containing a mesh bag for the holding of the fruit. Then, usually a fly wheel is turned pressing the juice out of the basket allowing it to flow into a container.

Fruit Wine
A fermented alcoholic beverage made from non-grape fruit juice which may or may not include the addition of sugar or honey. Fruit wines are always called "something" wines (e.g., plum wine), since the word wine alone is often legally defined as a beverage made only from grapes.

Fruit Wine Base
Typically sold in a can, these allow the winemaker to make fruit wines anytime throughout the year. Typically will produce 3 or 5 gallons and is available at most winemaking shops.


Grande Marque
French term for a famous brand of wine, most commonly associated with the large Champagne houses.

Grape Tannin
See Tannin
See Specific Gravity

Head Space
The area between the wine and the bung in a carboy or demijohn. Excess headspace contains oxygen that could make conditions feasible for bacteria.

An instrument used to measure the amount of sugar in a liquid such as wine and is expressed as specific gravity. The hydrometer will allow the winemaker to determine the final alcoholic content in a wine. A must have for every winemaker.


Ice wine
Wine made from frozen grapes. Written, and trademarked as a single word – Icewine - in Canada. Called Eiswein in German.

Used for the fining or clearing of white wines.


What is fermented beginning as a must and end resulting as alcohol.


A shorter way to refer to Potassium Metabisulfite.
A shorter way to refer to Potassium Sorbate

Kosher wine
Wine that is produced under the supervision of a rabbi so as to be ritually pure or clean.


Late harvest wine
Also known as late picked, wine made from grapes that have been left on the vine longer than usual. Usually an indicator for a very sweet or dessert wine.

This would be the sediment of dead yeast cells and other minute particles found at the bottom of a casket, carboy or primary container.

French term for the dead yeast and sediment of wine also known as lees.

Litre (US - Liter)
A metric measure of volume equal to 33.8 fluid ounces (U.S.) or 35.2 fl oz (imperial).


Maceration is the winemaking process where the phenolic materials of the grape tannins, coloring agents (anthocyanins) and flavor compounds are leached from the grape skins, seeds and stems into the must.

A bottle holding 1.5 litres, the equivalent of two regular wine bottles.

Malo-Lactic Fermentation
A secondary fermentation of wine due to either inoculation by nature or physically by you of a bacteria that will turn the harsher malic acid into a smoother lactic acid.

A wine-like alcoholic beverage made of fermented honey and water rather than grape juice.

A Mead made fermented with the addition of fruit. This can also get sub categorized depending on the type of fruit like grape being a Pyment and apple being a Cyser.

Originally created in California, these blended wines can be summed up as the "American Bordeaux". The term is a blend of the words "merit" and "heritage" and pronounced the same. The Red blend is made from at least 2 of the 5 Bordeaux grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. The White Meritage is a blend at least 2 of Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Vert, and Semillon.

See Malo-Lactic Fermentation

Mulled wine
Wine that is spiced, heated, and served as a punch.

Grape juice that has not been converted into wine. Your must resides in the primary container.


Noble Rot
A fungal virus brought on by Botrytis Cinerea that results in dehydrated and shrivelled grapes that are high in concentrated sugar. Noble Rot grapes are an essential component of many Austrian and German wines.

A synthetic cork made for the sealing of bottled wines. Normacorcs do not allow wine to breath but do not contain bacteria within them as some corks may.

This would refer to the aroma or bouquet of a wine.


Oak, Oak Chips and Oak Spirals
An additive sometimes used to give wine an oaky taste without the ageing in oak barrels.

A wine aficionado or connoisseur.

The study of aspects of wine and winemaking.


Pearson Square
The Pearson square ration formulation procedure is designed for simple rations in the blending of wines.

Pectic Enzyme
A liquid or powder that is added to crushed fruit to increase juice extraction. Also used during fermentation to eliminate pectin hazes. Typically adding 18 to 21 drops per 5 gallons of must. Usually lasts up to one year if kept refrigerated. The common dry powder ratio is ½ teaspoon per gallon.

pH is a measure of a solutions (wine) acidity. A wine with a pH of 3 is 10 times more acidic than a wine with a pH of 4. The thing to remember about pH is that the higher the pH, the lower the acidity, and the lower the pH, the higher the acidity. So basically a wine with a pH of 4.0 is less acidic that one with a pH of 3.6. Although total acid and pH are related, they represent different ways of measuring acidity of wine. The pH can be measured with a pH meter, an instrument that determines pH quickly and easily. It represents the active acidity of the wine. If the pH of a wine is too high, say 4.0 or above, the wine becomes unstable with respect to microorganisms. Low pH inhibits microorganism growth. Tartaric acid is sometimes added to fermenting grape juice in California to insure that an acceptable final pH can be realized, since some acid is lost during fermentation thus reducing the total acidity and raising the pH. Test kits may be purchased from any wine making supply store.

A sweet fortified wine, which is produced from grapes grown and processed in the Douro region of Portugal. This wine is fortified with the addition of distilled grape spirits in order to boost the alcohol content and stop fermentation thus preserving some of the natural grape sugars.

Potassium Bicarbonate
Potassium bicarbonate reduces the acid level of wine by neutralization and precipitation. It neutralizes acid by converting one to the hydrogen ions of tartaric acid to water and then combining with the remaining tartrate ion to form relatively insoluble potassium bitartrate (KHT).

Potassium Metabisulfite
Potassium metabisulfite, also referred to as K-Meta, (K2S2O5), is a white crystalline powder with a pungent sulfur odour. The main use for the chemical is as a yeast and bacteria killer. Typically added to juice to kill bad bacteria commonly found on grapes and other fruits. It dissapates quickly if exposed to air usually within 24 hours. It is a sulfite and is chemically very similar to sodium metabisulfite, with which it is sometimes used interchangeably. Potassium metabisulfite is generally preferred out of the two as it does not contribute sodium to the diet.

Potassium Sorbate
A wine stabilizer used with Potassium Metabisulfite or Campden Tablets. Sorbate works better with sulfites present than without, and it works better than sulfites alone. It interupts the reproduction cycle of yeasts thus making them unable to reproduce and their population slowly diminishes through attrition. Potassium sorbate is added in the amount of 1/2 teaspoon per gallon of wine. Also referred to as Sorbistat K.

Potential Alcohol Scale
Containing a listing of numbers, usually, from 0 thru 20 on a hydrometer. Knowing a musts starting and ending specific gravity point you can determine how much alcohol has been made. If you take a reading of 12% on the scale before the wine's fermentation starts and then take another reading at the end of fermentation of 0%, your wine has 12% alcohol because it moved 12 point across the scale.

Premier cru
French term for a "First growth". Used mostly in conjunction with the wines of Burgundy and Champagne where the term is regulated.

Premium wines
A subjective term to describe a higher quality classification of wine above every day drinking table wines. While premium wines maybe very expensive there is no set price point that distinguishes when a wine becomes a "premium wine". Premium wines generally have more aging potential than every day quaffing wines.

The bucket or original container used for the fermentation of juice. Typically covered with either cheese cloth or a loose fitting lid as oxygen is needed for the yeasts to survive the fermentation process.

Primary Fermentation
Initial fermentation period.

Punch Down
The pushing down of the fruit during the primary fermentation. This process aides in the incorporation of oxygen to the yeasts and slows the rate of oxidation to the fruit.

The indentation found in the base of a wine bottle. Punt depth is often thought to be related to wine quality, with better quality wines having a deeper punt. The punt also allows for the perfect displacement for the cork when filling the bottle.

A Mead fermented with the addition of grapes or grape juice.


Quaffing wine
A simple and everyday drinking wine.


Rack or Racking
The reference to the transferring of wine from one carboy to another. Usually done at the completion of fermentation and fining of the wine.

Racking Tube
A tube used to transfer wine from one container to another often times a carboy.

A term describing the reductive oxidative way that wine ages. As one part gains oxygen and becomes oxidized, another part loses oxygen and becomes reduced. Early in its life, a wine will exhibit oxidative aromas and traits due to the relatively recent influence and exposure of oxygen when the wine was barrel aged and/or bottled. As the ages and is shut off from a supply of oxygen in the bottle, a mature wine will develop reductive characteristics.

A term given to wine to indicate that it is of higher quality than usual.

The process of using gravity to facilitate the compacting of solids in champagne at the neck of the bottle. Bottles are placed at a forty-five degree angle, necks-down, in specially built "A-frame" racks, called pupitres. A worker grabs the bottom of each bottle, giving it a small shake, an abrupt back and forth twist, and while slightly increasing the tilt, drops it back in the rack. This process recurs every one to three days over several weeks. The shaking and twist is intended to dislodge particles that have clung to the glass bottle and prevent the sediments from caking in one spot; the tilt and drop encourage the particles, assisted by gravity, to move ever more downward; the time in between riddlings allows the particles to settle out of solution again.


A tart punch made from red wine along with orange, lemon and apricot juice with added sugar.

To make an item or area devoid of bacteria. A common sterilizer would be Potassium Metabisulfite mixed with water.

Usually a carboy used for the final stages of the primary fermentation. As fermentation slows so does the supply of oxygen protecting the must from bacteria. The must finishes it’s fermentation in the secondary.

Secondary Fermentation
See Malo Lactic Fermentation.

The remaining lees (dead yeast cells) and pieces of grape skins that accumulate on the bottom of a carboy or bucket after fermentation.

A fortified wine that has been subjected to controlled oxidation to produce a distinctive flavor.

To transfer wine from one container to another usually by a poly urethane tube with the aide of gravity.

Skeeter Pee
A wine made from lemon juice and sugar.

Refers to a yeast slurry by which taking the lees from one fermentation and adding to the must of another as in skeeter pee. Often used with fruits or musts of high acidity.

While making wine, heavier particles will settle to the bottom of your primary fermenter. When you transfer or rack the wine from your primary fermenter to the secondary fermenter, you often leave this sediment behind and end up throwing it out. This “slurry” at the bottom of your primary is a veritable army of viable yeast, unused nutrients, and fruit flavors. Skeeter Pee essentially “recycles” this slurry by putting it to work in a new batch of wine.

Soda Ash
Used to kill bacteria.

Sodium Metabisulfite
Used in the sanitation of wine making equipment. Sodium Metabisulfite and Potassium Metabisulfite are the two main ingredients in Camden tablets.

Sparkling wine
A wine given a secondary fermentation to allow for an effervescents thus containing significant levels of carbon dioxide. This would be typical of making champagne not from the champagne reigon of France.

A substance made from clay used to clear red and rose’ wines. Added to wines after fermentation is complete.

Specific Gravity (sg)
The concentration of sugar in water. As the amount of sugar increases, the specific gravity goes up. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.000 By using a hydrometer and knowing the starting and ending s.g. point, the amount of alcohol can be determined.

Italian for "sparkling".

An ingredient used for the raising of a musts specific gravity or for back-sweetening a wine.

A nutrient/energizer for yeast.

TA Test Kit
A kit designed to test the acidity in wines. This test should be done on all wines prior to fermentation.

Table wine
Generally any wine that is not sparkling or fortified. In the US these wines must also be between 7% and 14% alcohol by volume. The term table wine is also used to describe a wine that is considered a good, everyday drinker.

Derived from grape skins (among other products) stems and pips. It imparts a kind of astringency to the wine and will aid in a wines longevity.

Tartaric Acid
The most important fixed acid in wine. In it’s purest form it is known as cream of tartar.

Tartrate Crystals
Often called white diamonds it is the tartrate (a natural part of a wine) that falls to the bottom of a vessel during cold stabilization.

Potassium bitartrate or just tartrate is the half salt of tartaric acid which is a major ingredient in wine. Tartrate is usually removed from most wines.

Test Jar
A container used to take a wines gravity reading, check ph, sulfite levels etc.

Used to measure acidity in wine via a titration kit.

A kit using Sodium hydroxide (as a base) added to a wine sample, until a change in color occurs due to the presence of an indicator phenolphthalein.


The space between the wine and the top of a wine bottle. As a wine ages, the space of ullage will increase as the wine gradually evaporates and seeps through the cork. The winemaking term of "ullage" refers to the practice of topping off a barrel with extra wine to prevent oxidation.


Wines made from a single grape variety.

Vin nouveau
French term similar to Vin primeur denoting a very young wine meant to be consumed within the same vintage year it was produced. Example: Beaujolais nouveau.

An instrument used for the measuring of alcohol content in your wines.

This is the process of picking grapes and creating the finished product. A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all, or primarily, grown and harvested in a single year. Typically wines are given this year of harvest.


Waiter's friend
A popular type of corkscrew used most often in the hospitality industry.

Used on top of a cork to seal a bottle of wine.

An alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape or fruit juice.

Wine label
The descriptive label or signage attached to the side of a wine bottle. Usually containing the year of harvest, type, size, bottling company and other various items sometimes including warnings of sulfites within and potential hazards to pregnant women.

Wine Making Talk
A fantastic wine forum devoted to the assistance in the making of home made wine and beer with a right amount of social interaction and comradery. For more information visit

Wine tasting
The sensory evaluation of wine, encompassing more than taste, but also mouthfeel, aroma, and colour.

Wine Thief
A device used for the removal of small amounts of wine from your carboy. Similar to a turkey baster.

Wineyard, similar to a vineyard, but with an emphasis on growing a mix of nongrape fruits for making wine. Often a combination of berries and fruit tress such as elderberries, blackberries, raspberries, currants, and cherry, mulberry, apple and pear trees.


A micro-organism present on the skins of grapes that reacts with the sugars inside and results in the production of ethyl alcohol during a process called alcoholic fermentation.

Yeast Energizer
It is a mixture of nutrients used to create a more solid and rapid fermentation in musts.

Yeast Hydration
The process of adding yeast to 4 ounces of water at no greater than 100 degrees F thus allowing the yeast to become active. Typically left alone to hydrate 15 minutes then blended into your juice to begin fermentation.

Yeast Nutrient
A source of nitrogen which allows yeast to reproduce more readily. Nitrogen also helps yeasts to produce higher levels of enzymes thus allowing the wine to clear quicker and increase a yeasts tolerance to alcohol.

Yeast Starter
A liquid mixture of nutrients and sugars that yeast is introduced to prior to your fermentation of juice. This allows your yeast to grow and become stronger.

Currently there are no terms beginning with the letter “Z”

I would like to thank all those who assisted, both knowingly and unknowingly, in the assembly of the above terms. This includes but not limited to the administrators and moderators of the site, Jack Keller, E.C. Kraus, Wikipedia, and Gene Spaziani. Without being able to refer to these sites/books this list would not have been possible.
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Steve, thanks for all the hard work you put into this and you continued dedication to the forum! You make one heck of a lot of wine for not drinking a drop! :try
OH MY GOSH! (derserved so much more than the normal OMG) what a task!! you did so well steve thanks for the work!!!!!
It's here for all to use if they need to, and I hope they take atvantage of what it offers. I'm sure there will be a few adjustments but time will tell.

P.S. There's a test on Friday. Study!:)
"zumo"...spanish for juice, lol
best i could come up with.
great job steve! i especially like the info under "w"
Looks great Steve. You did forget one.

Corner - (a) the place in a room where two walls converge at a 90 degree angle. (b) see definition above, also where Nikki can often be found.

Thats is one hell of a good job Steve, it really is! KUDOS!

I hope everyone in here can help contribute and make it as complete as possible.

Keep on keeping on.

And I agree, not just with yours, but some of the signatures in here are just as enjoyable as members' avatars and their labels!!
Looks great Steve. You did forget one.

Corner - (a) the place in a room where two walls converge at a 90 degree angle. (b) see definition above, also where Nikki can often be found.

HOW TRUE ! ! :br
Steve Add it !
TROY(n), a winemaker that uses neither bottles or corks. SEE; siphon,or IV
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Grape Tannin; see Tannin

Derived from grape skins (among other products) stems and pips. It imparts a kind of astringency to the wine and will aid in a wines longevity.

Correction - The vast majority of tannins sold as "Grape Tannin" are actually derived from chestnut. Yes, even the powders. Isn't 'marketing' great?!

I'm sure the higher end suppliers prduce a genuine product, but real grape tannin is NOT the norm.
Bob thanks. I'm going to make some changes/revisions after many look this over. This is very interesting and this is how we all learn. This may never have been brought up. Once we get a few inputs I'll work with Wade/Tom/Julie Dan ummmmmm yeah him to and update the list.

Thanks again
Bob thanks. I'm going to make some changes/revisions after many look this over. This is very interesting and this is how we all learn. This may never have been brought up. Once we get a few inputs I'll work with Wade/Tom/Julie Dan ummmmmm yeah him to and update the list.

Thanks again

No, Thank YOU, Steve. This is an excellent resource! The tannin thing just jumped out at me when I was reviewing it.
Wineyard, similar to a vineyard, but with an emphasis on growing a mix of nongrape fruits for making wine. Often a combination of berries and fruit tress such as elderberries, blackberries, raspberries, currants, and cherry, mulberry, apple and pear trees.

This entry was refused by the twits at the "real" wikipedia who dont know their elbow from a corkscrew but should fit into this dictionary perfectly.

Missing Term.


From Wiki,

is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content after fermentation. The technique is named after its developer, the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal.[1] This process is not intended to make the wine sweeter, but rather to provide more sugar for the yeast to ferment into alcohol.[1]