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Common Terms

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lovethepirk

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Bucket – You want non colored FOOD GRADE buckets.

Carboy – Glass or plastic vessel used in fermenting beverages.

Primary Fermenter - A bucket or a larger glass or stainless steel vessel.

Must – Freshly pressed fruit juice. First step in wine making.

Hydrometer - An instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids.

Specific Gravity(SG) - In winemaking this is a number which tells the amount of sugar content in a must or wine. A common starting SG is around 1.080-1.100, but not always. An common ending 'dry' SG would be around .992-.995.

Racking - To transfer a liquid from one vessel to another. Normally done to remove the wine from the lees. Part of the clearing process.

Campden Tablets - Potassium Metabisulfite in tablet form which is used at the ratio of 1 tablet per gallon when adding to wine. Can be called 'NA-Meta'.

K-Meta – Is Potassium Metabisulfite(see below) Normal usage is 1/8 tsp to 1/4 tsp for 6 gallon recipe in must 24 hours before adding yeast. Add 1/4 tsp for 6 gallons after fermentation for preservation. Use 3 tbls per gallon of water for sanitization of equipment ( AKA Campden tablets in solid form)

NA-Meta - Is Sodium Metabisulfite. Normal usage is 1/8 tsp to 1/4 tsp per 6 gallon recipe in must 24 hours before adding yeast. Add 1/4 tsp for 6 gallons after fermentation for preservation. Use 3 tbls per gallon of water for sanitization of equipment ( AKA Campden tablets in solid form)

Potassium Metabisulfite – Added 24 hour before adding yeast. This is to destroy any wild molds and bacteria that may have been on the fruit. Also added after fermentation to reduce oxidation (which will affect the colour and flavour of the wine). Used in stronger doses with water as an equipment sanitizer.

Potassium Sorbate - Sometimes called "Wine Stabilizer", is added to finished wines before bottling to reduce the possibility of re-fermentation.

Pectic Enzyme
– A liquid or powder that is added to crushed fruit to increase juice extraction. Also added to juice prior to fermentation to enhance the clarification process. The powdered form can be stored for a longer time before losing its strength.

Yeast Nutrient
- Yeast Nutrient supplies nitrogen to the yeast in the singular form of a phosphate.

Yeast Starter – Method of rehydrating and activating yeast and accustoms it to the must prior to fermentation
http://wijnmaker.blogspot.com/2007/08/gist-starter-yeast-starter.html

Yeast Energizer - Supplies the wine yeast with much needed nitrogen, but from a wider range of nutrients than just phosphate. Energizer contains over a dozen yeast extractive proteins, along with B1 Vitamin, and di-ammonium phosphate. All are valuable sources of nitrogen. Good to use when must derivative is unlike grapes.

Acid Blend
- This is a blend of the primary acids found in fruit. Acid blend can contain any two or three of the primary acids (tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid) in any quantity. Acid blend can be store bought or self made by the home winemaker.

F-Pak
- Flavor Pack. Usually a concentrated juice of the original fruit ingredients or similar. Can also be simple syrup, honey, or other flavorings added once fermentation is complete. Sorbate and K-meta should be added prior to any F-Pak to prevent secondary fermentation.
http://www.winemakingtalk.com/forum/showpost.php?p=14045&postcount=7

Fining agent – Organic or inorganic compound added at end of fermentation to clarify and to change colour, odour, flavour and stability.

Benzoate - yeast inhibitor(blueberrys have them naturally)

Lees - The spent yeast cells and fruit solids that accumulate on the bottom of winemaking vessels

Bentonite
– Clay additive used before fermentation and after. It provides nucleation sites for the yeast during primary fermentation. It also makes the wine clearer and more stable by removing the protein haze and undesirable particles from a finished wine in a very short period of time.

Fining Agents - Usually bentonite, gelatin or isinglas, which are natural agents that are added to wine to accelerate the settling or clearing process.

Pomace - The solid materials left over from the fruit in winemaking or juicing. Such as the pulp in orange juice or spent fruit in a fruit sack left over after fermentation.
 
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Luc

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Small rectification please.

Pectic enzyme is also available in powdered form which can be stored for a longer time before losing its strength.

An acid blend can contain any two or three of the primary acids (tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid) in any quantity.
Acid blend can be store bought or self made by the home winemaker.

Lees can also contain fruit solids.

Luc
 

cpfan

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Some comments on this list.

Primary Fermenter can be a bucket or a larger glass or stainless steel vessel

Personally I don't think that the Bucket must be HDPE, but Food Grade is very important.

Bentonite mainly gets rid of protein haze (not certain about the description provided). It also provides nucleation sites for the yeast during primary fermentation.

Yeast energizers can vary a lot. The description given is probably accurate for one specific brand.

K-meta added at end of fermentation (and in the middle of fermentation) to prevent reduce oxidation (which will affect the colour and flavour of the wine).

Campden can also be Na-meta.

Steve
 
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smurfe

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A few other terms not seen:

Pomace, the solid materials left over from the fruit in winemaking or juicing. Such as the pulp in orange juice or spent fruit in a fruit sack left over after fermentation.

Racking, to transfer a liquid from one vessel to another. Normally done to remove the wine from the lees. Part of the clearing process.

I agree with Steve as well, you don't need a bucket stamped HDPE but do want a food grade product. You can use those gray Rubbermaid trash cans you see in commercial settings for fermenters. They are not stamped HDPE but are food grade and perfectly acceptable for a large fermenter. There was an article in either Winemaker or Brew Your Own magazine showing how to make one of these into a fermenter.
 

Wade E

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Sulfite added in the middle? I have never seen that nor do I agree with that statement at all. There is no need to add sulfite to protect a wine from oxidation as its producing tons of C02 which will protect the wine and adding sulfites will only hinder a fermentation and possibly stop it from fermenting completely.
 

cpfan

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Wade:

Fruit wine makers add sulphite before adding the yeast. Kit wine makers do not.

Kit wine makers add sulphite and sorbate as part of stabilization. Fruit wine makers probably should.

All wine makers MAY add sulphite prior to bottling to provide additional shelf life.

Now which of these do you disagree with? The middle one?

You're right I did not mean "middle of fermentation", I meant "middle of the process", ie stabilization. That's wat I get for replying at 4am.

Steve
 

lovethepirk

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Added everything mentioned so far. Yell if something is not accurate or needs to be added. I think this is a good list for newbies :r


--Added some more....is the SG definition and suggestions okay, or should they be modified a bit or taken out completely?

Specific Gravity(SG) - In winemaking this is a number which tells the amount of sugar content in a must or wine. A common starting SG is around 1.080-1.010, but not always. An common ending 'dry' SG would be around .992-.995.
 
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cpfan

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I think you meant 1.080 to 1.100 for starting sg.

Steve
 

arcticsid

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Love, it seems like that was the sort of list that brought me so muchconfusion in the begining!!

Now I just throw in some juice, sugar, and yeast. (Now I use wine yeast)

When the cats finally stop looking at the airlock, it's time to rack it off.

Back in the early days, my cat once watched an ailock for 5 days straight! No sleep or food, I would look over and she would be laying down with one eye open the whole time.

Some old winemakers may call me silly or drunk, but I am only telling you what I seen. maybe cats know something about this. If they do, they better start chipping in, cause so far it is starting to cost me alot of money for their amusement.
Troy
 

Wade E

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I have never gotten a staright answer on this as have many others not. I have been told that it should be kept refridgerated but dont have any clue of exp dates and have never seen a refridge after opening on any either. I have had some of this stuff un frdged over 1 year and never had a problem though. I do keep mine in the fridge with my yeast now though.
 

Monica

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I just saw this post and found it interesting. Do you know if it was the big rubbermaid trash cans on wheels? I make hard cider and would really like to do it in larger quantities. I have 15 gallons going at a time usually, but its in 3 different 5 gal fermenting buckets. Thanks for your help!
 

ramdisk

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New to wine making and I didn't find this term, what is MLF? I see it allot in posts.
Thanks
 

Tom

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Your welcome. Typically its done on big reds. Smoothes out the wine.
 

djrockinsteve

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I searched this site and didn't find this, do we have or I think it would be a good idea to have a "Dictionary" of wine and beer terms? They could be 2 seperate pages. Just the basics and perhaps a link to more info whether it's wikipedia or Jack Keller's site. :b
 

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