Bucket – You want non colored FOOD GRADE buckets. Carboy – Glass or plastic vessel used in fermenting beverages. Primary Fermenter - A bucket or a larger glass or stainless steel vessel. Must – Freshly pressed fruit juice. First step in wine making. Hydrometer - An instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids. Specific Gravity(SG) - In winemaking this is a number which tells the amount of sugar content in a must or wine. A common starting SG is around 1.080-1.100, but not always. An common ending 'dry' SG would be around .992-.995. Racking - To transfer a liquid from one vessel to another. Normally done to remove the wine from the lees. Part of the clearing process. Campden Tablets - Potassium Metabisulfite in tablet form which is used at the ratio of 1 tablet per gallon when adding to wine. Can be called 'NA-Meta'. K-Meta – Is Potassium Metabisulfite(see below) Normal usage is 1/8 tsp to 1/4 tsp for 6 gallon recipe in must 24 hours before adding yeast. Add 1/4 tsp for 6 gallons after fermentation for preservation. Use 3 tbls per gallon of water for sanitization of equipment ( AKA Campden tablets in solid form) NA-Meta - Is Sodium Metabisulfite. Normal usage is 1/8 tsp to 1/4 tsp per 6 gallon recipe in must 24 hours before adding yeast. Add 1/4 tsp for 6 gallons after fermentation for preservation. Use 3 tbls per gallon of water for sanitization of equipment ( AKA Campden tablets in solid form) Potassium Metabisulfite – Added 24 hour before adding yeast. This is to destroy any wild molds and bacteria that may have been on the fruit. Also added after fermentation to reduce oxidation (which will affect the colour and flavour of the wine). Used in stronger doses with water as an equipment sanitizer. Potassium Sorbate - Sometimes called "Wine Stabilizer", is added to finished wines before bottling to reduce the possibility of re-fermentation. Pectic Enzyme – A liquid or powder that is added to crushed fruit to increase juice extraction. Also added to juice prior to fermentation to enhance the clarification process. The powdered form can be stored for a longer time before losing its strength. Yeast Nutrient - Yeast Nutrient supplies nitrogen to the yeast in the singular form of a phosphate. Yeast Starter – Method of rehydrating and activating yeast and accustoms it to the must prior to fermentation http://wijnmaker.blogspot.com/2007/08/gist-starter-yeast-starter.html Yeast Energizer - Supplies the wine yeast with much needed nitrogen, but from a wider range of nutrients than just phosphate. Energizer contains over a dozen yeast extractive proteins, along with B1 Vitamin, and di-ammonium phosphate. All are valuable sources of nitrogen. Good to use when must derivative is unlike grapes. Acid Blend - This is a blend of the primary acids found in fruit. Acid blend can contain any two or three of the primary acids (tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid) in any quantity. Acid blend can be store bought or self made by the home winemaker. F-Pak - Flavor Pack. Usually a concentrated juice of the original fruit ingredients or similar. Can also be simple syrup, honey, or other flavorings added once fermentation is complete. Sorbate and K-meta should be added prior to any F-Pak to prevent secondary fermentation. http://www.winemakingtalk.com/forum/showpost.php?p=14045&postcount=7 Fining agent – Organic or inorganic compound added at end of fermentation to clarify and to change colour, odour, flavour and stability. Benzoate - yeast inhibitor(blueberrys have them naturally) Lees - The spent yeast cells and fruit solids that accumulate on the bottom of winemaking vessels Bentonite – Clay additive used before fermentation and after. It provides nucleation sites for the yeast during primary fermentation. It also makes the wine clearer and more stable by removing the protein haze and undesirable particles from a finished wine in a very short period of time. Fining Agents - Usually bentonite, gelatin or isinglas, which are natural agents that are added to wine to accelerate the settling or clearing process. Pomace - The solid materials left over from the fruit in winemaking or juicing. Such as the pulp in orange juice or spent fruit in a fruit sack left over after fermentation.