Bryan, I'm happy to have you nit-pick my nit-picking, in the interest of clarity for all of us walking this path with Dave. Let me see if I have this correct... and this is as much for me...
As I understand it, maceration is the softening and breaking down of the plant tissue, and begins with the crush but can also begin with cold-soaking or carbonic techniques. Adding pectic enzyme enhances this process as the enzymes work to break down the pectin in the plant walls.
Fermentation can begin at any point in the maceration process if the conditions are favorable, and
maceration continues to occur throughout the fermentation process.
At some point, we must decide when we've gotten everything we want from the pulp. We typically take the free-run wine and pressed wine from the skins/pulp as the SG approaches 1.010 or so, and continue on with the wine, discarding the rest. This time on the pulp imparts organoleptics, aromatics, phenols, flavenoids, anthrocyans, polyphenols, etc... White wines have less of these characteristics (less time on the pulp) and red wines have more (more time on the pulp).
Sometimes we keep the wine on the pulp as maceration continues and fermentation winds down (extended maceration). Since there is a lot of potential food, for a lot of potentially uninvited guests, maintaining a good pH, no oxygen (closed container under airlock burping CO2), etc... inhibits unwanted guests but continues to allow for extraction of the above items from the pulp. Somewhere down the road, we reach the end-point of what we want to, can, or should extract, and depending on what we want, we must remove the wine somewhere in that timeline prior to the pulp giving up things we may not want.
One resource I found in my research (this is on mulberries though) indicated that "long maceration during the mulberry wine fermentation caused a decrease in the level of volatile compounds, including alcohols, acids, terpenoids, norisoprenoids, benzenes and sulphur compounds. This significantly weakened the fruity and floral aromas and the sensory complexity of the mulberry wine." (Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 2018
(WA) does EM on one of their pear ciders because it imparts notes of baking spices, among other things. Conversely, research from Beverages (2019)
indicated that (some) non-macerated apples gave up more phenols than those macerated pre-fermentation (cold soak?). However, they only chose 4 apple types and macerated for up to 2 hours. Hardly a blink in the life of a wine.
Here's where I think I am today, and I'm very interested in the experiences of others: Grapes can be under EM for quite some time and can lead to greater smell, taste, mouthfeel, etc... What are the points in the timeline for other fruits?