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This post is eight “BOOK REVIEWs” on YouTube webinars related to fermentation microbiology. This is intended to let you know the good info is out there whether you just read summaries or watch as you need the vendor's answer. ~MY OPINIONs~ are in italic followed by the link to the webinar and the authors description. Warning!, some folks (me for example) may start binge watching YouTube since there are other pretty good webinars industrial suppliers have given about their wine making supplies.

In pre-pandemic time Scott Labs, (a US supplier) put on four hour long customer seminars. They were intended introduce important concepts to help folks make quality wines and familiarize us on which Scott Labs product would help. Suppliers have started creating webinars which are available on YouTube. The list in this post are a few fermentation topics that I like. They tend to be about an hour, and are college level information. Scott is by no means the only place for good technical info so I start with Lallemand and end with Bucher Vaslin (French supplier).
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An easy to follow, low tech guide for using dry yeast, 36 minutes
* Everything you need to know about dry yeast, Brittney Berg, Sales Manager for Lallemand answers many frequently asked questions about dry yeast ranging from production, rehydration to repitching. Questions that were covered: What is A.D.Y. (active dry yeast)? How is it made? What is Trehalose? Why are there not as many dry strains available compared to liquid? Do I need to rehydrate dried yeast? How do I go about doing that? How do I store dry yeast? and how once I have opened a packet? Do I need to aerate? Can I repitch another ferment with this yeast? What if I ignore the best by date?
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When you get down to it yeast are very hardy. This short video shows what a microbiology lab looks like and “sterile” technique in farming yeast, drying yeast. 4 minutes
* Virtual Tour: Lallemand Bio-Ingredients Salutaguse, Estonia plant
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Basic concepts one gets in a microbiology course as competitive cell populations going into a fermentation, plus practical details as nutrition/ pH as a fence/ use of metabisulphite/ sorbate/ filtration/ infection vectors/ microbial spoilage/ weaknesses of spoilage organisms/ always mix your yeast to prevent pockets of infection/ what if we dose with less than recomended yeast. (1) 1 hour; 12 minutes and (2) 1 hour, 19 minutes

Part 1: https://youtu.be/bFouHaECa94 * Budding Geniuses: Yeast Management & Selection to Maximize Wine Quality & Drive Wine Style, Scott Labs loves yeast! Yeast have a huge impact and yeast selection is an important tool for driving wine style. Proper nutrition and fermentation practices combined with strain selection are important to achieve a desired outcome. Join us for Part 2 of an exciting two-part episode of our webinar series where host Darren Michaels and guest speaker Dr. Nichola Hall explore the world of yeast, yeast selection, and fermentation outcomes. Budding Geniuses Part 2: Good Fermentation Practices - The Importance of Proper Yeast Rehydration - Nutritional Management - How to Use Nutrients to Drive Aromas
Part 2: * Budding Geniuses: Yeast Management & Selection to Maximize Wine Quality & Drive Wine Style: Scott Labs loves yeast! Yeast have a huge impact and yeast selection is an important tool for driving wine style. Proper nutrition and fermentation practices combined with strain selection are important to achieve a desired outcome. Join us August 6th for Part 1 of an exciting two-part episode of our webinar series where host Darren Michaels and guest speaker Dr. Nichola Hall explore the world of yeast, yeast selection, and fermentation outcomes. Budding Geniuses Part 1: Yeast Physiology and Selection - Basic Yeast Physiology and Growth Cycles - Yeast Nutritional Requirements - Selecting Yeast Using Our 2020 Winemaking Handbook
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Extra microbiology course info related to farming with yeast, as how to choose conditions where yeast out compete or what does sulfur dioxide do to bacterial cells. 1 hour, 24 minutes
* Taming the Beasts Within Your Wine: New & Old Ways to Prevent Microbial Spoilage: We are excited to announce a new Scott Labs Winemaking webinar series, hosted by our very own Darren Michaels. Join us for a short presentation and Q&A with Dr. Nichola Hall, where we discuss the following: - Wine hygiene theory - Methods to prevent and treat microbial spoilage - Low-to-no SO2 microbial control options1
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A microbiologist talks about requirements for growing yeast. Of note she is good at “off the cuff” answers of what is happening and fixes in the question session. 1 hour, 16 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S_Majzto54Q * Snap Out of It: Restarting a Stuck Fermentation: a quick review and live Q&A with Dr. Nichola Hall and Darren Michaels, where we will be discussing stuck wine treatments and how to get a restart going towards the best possible outcome. Topics Include: - Brief procedure overview - Critical control steps in building a successful starter - Treatment of toxins and competitive species - Optimal yeast and nutrient options.
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Malo Lactic fermentation; eleven slides with the basics and question & answer session, bacteria are inhibited above 7 gm/L malic acid, VA above 1.4g/L, limiting factors, free sulfur, slow below 68F, Lallemand scorecard for ease, ML restart process, 1 hour 2 min,
* Stuck MLF Diagnosis and Remediation, Wouldn’t it be great to finish malolactic before the holidays? Join Annamarie Howard and Darren Michaels as they have a quick discussion and live Q&A on how to deal with sluggish or stuck ML fermentations. From asking the right questions to deciding on the analysis to run, join us to try and get those wines to be bed before the holidays! Topics include: - Common diagnostic questions to answer - Should I use malolactic fermentation nutrients? - Calculating Success: Lallemand MLF Scorecard - Method to Restarting a Stuck ML Fermentation.
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Bucher Vaslin, a French company, authored this webinar focused on microbial control,,, some of the tools which are legal in other countries are new to us. (If you want to stay US centered the Scott Labs version of this subject is “ Strategies and Solutions for High pH Wine Making”. HACCP = prevent the issue before it bites you)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZKcj6tv59s * high pH winemaking. BucherVaslin pH is one of the most important parameters measured and used by winemaker as decision maker from grape picking and all along the winemaking process. pH, related to vineyard practices, indicator of grape ripeness, also affects wine stability and quality. High pH has historically been a difficult winemaking situation, where microbial stability and oxidative challenges can depreciate wine quality through fermentation and ageing. We will focus on the challenges associated to high pH grapes and the winemaking solutions available to winemakers. • Limit further increase of pH during grape processing • Oxidation management: from harvest to bottling • Microbial control during winemaking • Mouthfeel : tools available to balance high pH wines. www.bvnorthamerica.com/lamothe
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... To be continued as I binge watch
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This post evaluates ten webinars,, “BOOK REVIEWs” related to air exposure (AKA redox potential) while making wine. Negative as well as favorable quality changes are described for introduced oxygen. The selections are intended to present info about how and why flavors changes and what industry does (home winemakers could consider) to improve quality. Again ~OPINIONs~ are in italic, followed by the link to the specific webinar and any description from the author.
Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) is a neutral research group working on techniques to improve wine, Scott Labs is a technology provider to US wineries (Bucher Vaslin has a European industiral view) and Nomacorc (Vinventions) sells world wide a series of oxygen controled synthetic corks that can mimic natural cork as well as tight metal closures. The last two videos are intended to hint at reductive vs oxidative flavor unfortunately it would be easier just tasting samples so they are last.
My take on all this; first of all the chemistry starts looking the same no matter if I look in the States or Australia or Europe. Lots of folks believe this is what wine does. Second when folks start analyzing specific chemical constituents they can track back to the air exposure on the juice press and see the rate of chemistry change is faster with early and with more air exposure. Third would be that there is conversion of what we monitor ie poor treatment increases free SO
2 consumption, and measured redox potential rate of change and Dissolved Oxygen rate of change and NomaSence oxygen rate of change, ,, the tools we have could be used to understand how big the process risk is in your or my winery. A final point several presenters say is that early winery processes are more important than what kind of closure is on the bottle.
Several of the arguments given are 1) for red wine micro-oxidation should be done, AKA the 10,000 gallon chemistry similar to treating wine in a barrel is a possible technique to improve quality, 2) there are negatives to any oxygen in that the maximum shelf life of the wine is reduced, 3) for commercial folks it is sometimes worth while to reduce ALL air exposure starting with nitrogen in the fruit press. * Oxidative conditions (lots of air) can be used to develop deep color, non-primary fruit flavor and textural complexity * Reductive conditions (flush everything with inert gas) will maximize fresh fruit flavors along with lower temperatures, inert gas and more SO
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This webinar starts with an overview of wine degradation over years of storage and finishes with a review of bottle closures with oxygen transmission data. Of note; at the seven minute point it mentions an article that influenced Australian wineries to favor low oxygen transmission closures. The impact of air in early processes such as long pressing increases dissolved oxygen which increases measured degradation, however one don’t see this till it is bottled, 2) metals are required to catalyze/ speed up wine reactions, 3) data shows the wine chemistry (redox potential) is more important than the type of bottle closure, 4) total oxygen at packaging is more important to shelf life than the closure type. All wines consume oxygen (can become reductive) but how fast?, new closures might scavenge sulfur (reductive) aromas, 43 minutes
www.youtube.com/watch?v=09vejFiudrM * Closures – latest understanding of their impact, Presenter - Dr Eric Wilkes (The_AWRI) 2017 Over the last few decades the range of closures that have become available to the wine industry has increased significantly, along with the claims and counter-claims about their benefits for the storage and maturation of wine. The Australian Wine Research Institute has now conducted numerous closure trials in red, white and even sparkling wines. This webinar will present the current understanding of the impact that closure selection can have on wine development, including the role of oxygen, transition metals and volatile sulfur compound development, and the underlying drivers behind the chemical changes that occur as a wine ages.
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An excellent first look at the effect of oxygen in a wines quality. It covers effects from a wide range of practices as tannin addition , splash racking, dissolved oxygen, temperature effects, gas/ nitrogen flushing and tools as oxygen transmission rate or the redox meter used to find where damage is happening, and what the change means on the finished wine’s flavor. Scott Labs like AWRI point at dissolved oxygen as the main culprit for loss of shelf life. A long video but the explanation to what can be improved; 1 hour, 38 min.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETuExGmNgzE * The Basics of Oxygen Management to Preserve Wine Quality: We are excited to announce the next episode in our new Scott Labs webinar series hosted by our very own Darren Michaels. Join us for a short presentation and Q&A with special guest speaker Luke Holcombe where we will be discussing the other side of finished wine quality: oxygen management. Topics will include: - What could go wrong? Oxygen-Related Faults - Bottling and Packaging Concerns - Oxygen Management Concepts and Techniques
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This is a second look at oxygen exposure and risk analysis, again excellent. I found it interesting to have data which gave examples of what level of oxygen could be picked up in processes as racking or with a variety of closure types. I lust for one of the DO meters pictured. A final theme- we can extend wine quality into years by fixing at how much life we lose early in the winery processes. 1 hour, 7 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sn7Lxq4ynN4 * Dissolved Oxygen: Why it’s Important and how to Implement a Management Program: Luke Holcombe, Scott Labs Field Sales Rep., Dissolved oxygen is the driver behind many of the most common stability and spoilage issues facing winemakers. Its negative synergistic relationship with sulfur dioxide, the role it plays with volatile sulfur defects, and microbial interactions make it worthy of attention. In this webinar, we will discuss its effects, easy to implement mitigation and removal strategies, and discuss “bottle shock” as well as “barrel shock”.
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This video is about half chemistry and half treatments which can be tried to change reductive flavors. Ie sulfides / threshold detection level/ latent sulfur changes (in bottle), YAN prevents yeast from forming sulfide compounds, it is easier to flush SO2 out early with yeast CO2.

* Managing ‘reductive’ aromas in wines; Speaker: Dr Marlize Bekker (The Australian Wine Research Institute) Webinar recorded: 7 November 2019 Additional resources: https://www.awri.com.au/industry_supp... Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are known to cause ‘reductive’ aromas in wine, commonly described as ‘rotten egg’ (hydrogen sulfide), ‘putrefaction’ (methanethiol) and ‘rubber’ (ethanethiol). These compounds play important roles in determining wine aroma, consumer preference and the perception of wine quality. Therefore, the management of VSC concentrations in wines, whether from fermentation or 'other' origins, is an important consideration for winemakers. The main techniques used for VSC removal are oxidative handling and/or copper fining; however, the effectiveness of these treatments may be temporary, as the compounds can often reappear post-bottling when reductive conditions are re-established. This presentation will summarise the latest research on ‘reductive’ aroma formation in wines and discuss practical remediation strategies to manage these characters, 58 minutes (30 min. was Q&A)
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Using an oxygen measuring tool (Noma Sense), the effect of different winery processes on total oxygen consumed. The useful information for home winemakers is in several examples of how much dissolved oxygen an process can add to our wine. Total oxygen consumption equals Dissolved oxygen plus head space oxygen plus closure transmitted oxygen and TPO should be balanced with the free SO2; hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), 35 minutes
* "The Oxidation Cascade in Wine" - Dr. Stéphane Vidal, Vinventions/ Nomacorc.
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Improving shelf life by reducing sulfur aromas, The precursors to volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), four remediation strategies for VSC, → low oxygen storage/ oxygen consumed in storage/ metal ions , 38 minutes
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vp3Ft5oCH6Q * The Formation and Remediation of Stinky Sulfur Aromas In Wines. Speaker: Dr Marlize Bekker (The_AWRI) Webinar recorded: 31 May 2018 Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are important in wine as they can cause unpleasant ‘reductive’ aromas that have a negative effect on wine quality. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), ethanethiol (EtSH), and dimethylsulfide (DMS) are examples of VSCs associated with ‘reductive’ aromas in wines post-bottling. In this webinar, factors influencing the formation of H2S, MeSH, EtSH, and DMS will be discussed, and the effects of four commonly used remediation strategies will be compared.
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Traditional red wines resists oxidation better, oxidation develops color, sulphite bleaching, measuring reductive strength, less odious- chemistry principles, sulphite free wine, 43 minutes

* Oregon Wine Symposium 2016 | Oxygen Management in Winemaking, Clark Smith author Post Modern Winemaking, Are you curious about your wines appetite for oxygen? How does temperature influence oxygen uptake? Is SO2 as effective as we think it is? How do we "grow" structure in the vineyard to help us manage oxygen in the winery? Oxygen considerations when making white wine and Pinot noir will be presented. Your wines appetite deserves your attention in this session!
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copper treatment delays but does not prevent reductive flavors, redox chemistry applied to wine micro-oxygenation, keeps sulfite flavor but creates a short shelf life & tight corks –> chemistry! 25 minutes, (The_AWRI)
www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdFftbLivgQ * Reduction and oxidation in wine and their impact on volatile sulfur compounds, Vincente Ferreira, Laboratorio de Análisis del Aroma y Enología (LAAE), Universidad de Zaragoza The report reproduced in this films
was presented at the 11th edition of Enoforum (Zaragoza, 31 May-1 June 2018) within the module organized in cooperation with Oenobrands See the other presentation of this module:
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The purpose for putting this video in was the question, Why should I care about oxidation
This is a review of taste panel preferences and concludes most consumers prefer reductive
wine (low oxygen) not oxidative wine. Tests were with with two white grape varieties. 12 minutes
* Reductive Winemaking vs. Traditional Winemaking! Differences and what consumers prefer???,
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The purpose for putting this video in was the question, Why should I care about bottle oxidation? The video is a tasting session with a white and a red wine against Nomacorc 100 & 500 & a competitor with different oxygen addition rates. Oxidative Nomacorc (and natural cork) produces fruity where as low transmission cork created flinty flavor; 21 minutes
* Taste The Difference - Wines under different oxygen levels by Dr. Maurizio Ugliano of Nomacorc, 2013
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bonus 2 minutes (have a few characters left before an error message): an interesting Vinventions technology to measure redox chemistry of wine, ?Question: one promo seems to indicate the oxygen transmission is a property electrically etched on the surface of Nomacorc
* PolyScan C200 Tendency of Evolution test - Assessing wine sensitivity to oxidation. This tutorial shows how to perform a Tendency of Evolution test using the NomaSense PolyScan C200 decision-making tool. This predictive test is used to assess whether a wine is sensitive to oxidation or not sensitive to oxidation at the time the test is done. Based on the results, winemakers can be guided in their technical choices and adapt the wine process, such as ageing type or closure permeability choices.

more "book report" to come
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What is after '65' on the legend for dark red? It is cut off, and i can't tell the difference with yellow. I would use mostly green, basement temps.
you are taxing the brain cells, lets see, that test also had a few levels of FT Rouge tannin run at 65F which is why there was more than one 65F data set , , , and the vinters club gets to taste the resulting sample wines in a meeting.
What is after '65' on the legend for dark red? It is cut off, and i can't tell the difference with yellow. I would use mostly green, basement temps.
A guideline for where to balance TA on wine;
after club contest this year I collected eight first place wines which are the red triangles
The sample set "cloud" is primarily commercial wines, with some collected in the vinters club and here on WineMakingTalk
NOTE: TA is one of several quality traits which a first place wine has as absence of flavor defect, appropriate aroma for the variety and clarity , , , etc.
NOTE 2: this is an easy test, if ya'll are interested in your wine ,,, PM me
An introduction to flavor balance: Acid/Sour
An added note: When we taste food/ beverage flavors they come as waves, the first wave is typically sweet followed by acid or salty followed by bitter or astringent (ie different tannins in wine). Natural sugars wash out of the mouth fairly fast. Artificial sweetners vary in speed for example stevia is fast and frequently blended with monk fruit which is slower.
My favorite demonstration of waves of flavor is pepper; .. white pepper is fast to detect and fast to wash out of the mouth, ,, black pepper is slower to be detected and lasts longer in the mouth, ,, still slower is red pepper which may take a second mouth full to be detect and by that time we say - OH _ S#ugar ! - is that ever strong

The psychology of Tasting (skip the 5 minute intro);

Note: It is easier to formulate a winning grocery product with a fanciful name. ,,, I can skew how high a contest cyser scores if I build the judge's expectations as "with cinnamon" or "aged in a maple syrup barrel", otherwise the complexity might be called a defect.
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About a year ago we had a discussion about holding vacuum and vacuvin stoppers and check valves
so I killed a few days testing hardware. > results
* An effective vacuum set up needs to have the same seals as one would use with gas lines
* old corks get hard and are not effective at holding a vacuum
* a carboy with wine in it will release CO2 and not hold a vacuum as long as a dry system
(working definition of a good enough degassed wine was the carboy can hold a five inch Hg vacuum for 30 minutes)
* The rate of change decreases as the pressure differential decreases, There was still a slight difference on gage at thirteen months with the empty flask
* A new vacuvin check valve is effective at holding vacuum
* A new plastic check valve is effective at holding vacuum (polysulphone and nylon construction)
* To know how well a hardware setup is performing one needs to have a vacuum gage
photo setup 1
photo setup 2
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a tool for balancing wines
The figure below is an update of the 2021 post of first place wines which have been evaluated in a contest. This update has blue ribbon and red ribbon non-tannin wines as diamonds, blue ribbon and red ribbon tannic wines (mostly reds) as stars. The black dots are third place/ white ribbon and no place wines.
Balance to meet the US market is one of the properties that makes a great wine. Aroma and how bad the defects are will be at least as important as where the balance is placed.

At this time I have looked at several hundred commercial and club wines. The whole data set looks like a fan shape cloud. From this I would assume that personal taste is quite variable (and maybe wonder if folks know how to change sweetness).
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