Hi all, A few questions about malolactic fermentation. First, some details: Grapes involved - Cab Sauv, Petite Sirah, Pinot Noir, all fermented to 'dryness' (below 1.000 SG). Wine racked off lees. pH of all between 3.6 - 3.7. SO2 levels all around 5 ppm. Temp of juice ~72F. All inoculated (2 days ago) with MBR 41, along with ACTI-ML per instructions (except with ~110% recommended amounts). Caveats: I realize there is no 1 single answer that applies to each and every situation...just looking for some generalizations. I know that there are tests, both expensive (easy w/quick results) and inexpensive (somewhat easy w/varying degrees of time needed). I plan to make that purchase next year. So for now, I'm not looking to have to purchase anything that would be required for testing MLF completeness. With that in mind, I'm looking to get most ML converted based solely on (a) time and (b) visual clues (if any). For this year, I'm ok if I don't get 100% MLF completed. I do happen to have some Lysozyme on hand so I can use that at the end (or perceived end) to arrest any ML bacteria that may remain. The questions: How can one tell if MFL is occurring or has started? How long does it take to realize it is in fact occurring (& not stalled or stuck)? Ex. Should I know within a week? How long does a typical MFL take to complete for a red? Ex. Weeks? Months? Thanks!