How To Select A Yeast For Your Must This is going to be a big tutorial and it will cover the more common yeasts used and their own characteristics. These are based upon manufacturer recommendations. I. INTRODUCTIONS The strain of yeast you select for your winemaking can be very important. Each strain of yeast was created to produce very specific results for a specific grape. With that in mind the result will vary based upon when the grape is harvested as well as which vinyard they were harvested from. Other influences upon the taste will be the temperature at which you ferment. Choosing different strains of yeast for your winemaking will produce a different final result even within the same grape. One strain may produce a fruity taste while another strain with the same grape can produce a more complex flavor. Even after a few years in the bottle the flavor from the wine will vary. It is all in what you prefer in taste. Also take note of the nutritional requirements for each strain of yeast. Some require more nitrogen than others. II. HOW TO ADD YOUR YEAST Yeast can be added by several means. Pitching, sprinkling the yeast upon your must and allow it to "awaken" and begin fermenting. Secondly, by rehydrating your yeast. Place the yeast into a few ounces of water up to 100 degrees and allow it to awaken for 15 minutes before adding to your must. Third by making a yeast starter. Start off by rehydrating your yeast as stated above but rather than add it directly to your must, add it to a solution of water and inverted sugar. Allow the yeast to begin to feed upon the sugar water. An hour or two later introduce a few ounces of your must to the yeast. Repeat until your yeast is in full fermentation and add to your must. A yeast starter can be very helpful in difficult musts (those high in acid). Typically one packet of dry yeast is used to ferment up to 6 gallons of must without difficulty. You may stretch that however it will take longer to ferment your must. In the case of doing small amounts, (one or three gallons) you may use one half a packet of yeast. Reseal the yeast packet and place in a refrigerator until it can be used. Be advised that once open the life of the unused yeast will begin to decline so it is recommended that you use it as soon as possible. Unopened yeast packets should be kept in a cool dry area such as a refrigerator. Check the expiration date on the packet before purchasing from your local supplier. III. WINES AND THEIR YEAST RECOMMENDATIONS There are many different kinds of grapes available to ferment into wine. Listing all of them would be a bit excessive. With that in mind I have chosen to select the most common and which strain of yeast is best recommended for that specific type of grape. You may opt to choose a different strain of yeast or a different brand, that is entirely up to you and most likely will still result with adequet results. This is just a reference to help get you started and educate you on which strain of yeast will produce the best results. Should you hav a different grape to ferment that is not listed I suggest you either select a similar grape that is listed or inquire with the folks you purchase your supplies from for suggestions. Those of you that are making kits is is best that you use the yeast that came with your kit. A lot of time and research has been done to produce the results the manufacturer wants their kit to taste like. Suggested yeasts for the following wines are; REDS- Cabernet Franc-RC 212 Cabernet Sauvignon-RC 212 Grenache-RC 212, 71B-1122 Merlot-RC 212 Nebbiolo-RC 212, 71B-1122 Pinot Noir-RC 212, 71B-1122 Sangiovese-RC 212, 71B-1122 Syrah and Petite Syrah-RC 212, 71B-1122 Zinfandel-RC 212, 71B-1122 WHITES- Chardonnay-ICV D-47 Chenin Blanc-ICV D-47 Gewurztraminer Muscat-ICV D-47 or ICV K1V-1116 Pinot Grigio-ICV D-47, 71B-1122 Riesling-ICV D-47, 71B-1122 Sauvignon Blanc-ICV D-47 Viognier ROSE'S- ICV D-47, 71B-1122 FRUITS and OTHERS- 71B-1122 or RC 212. For difficult musts EC-1118 Champagne- ICV K1V-1116 Primary Fermentation, then EC-1118 Secondary Fermentation IV. YEAST CHARACTERISTICS This is just a small sample of the yeasts that are available. Please check with your supplier and do your research. This is just meant to be a basic guide to your wine making. Yeasts are arranged by alphabetical order. Enoferm- AMH-Great for reds, good for whites with a slow fermentation rate. Tolerates alcohol to 15% Temp. range of 20°-30°c (68°-86°F). BDX-Excellent for reds, moderate fermentation rate. Tolerates up to 16% alcohol. Needs nitrogen for best fermentation. Temp. ranges 18°-30°c (66°-86°F) BGY-Excellent for reds with a slow fermentation rate. Temp. range 24°-30°c (76°-86°F) Alcohol tolerance to 15% CSM-A very active fermentor for reds with moderate speed. Requires a high amount of nitrogen and tolerates 14% alcohol. Has a temp. range of 15°-32°c (59°-90°F) ICV-D47-Excellent for whites and Rose'. Adequet for reds. Very active fermentation. Tolerates up to 14% alcohol. 15°-20°c (59°-68°F) temp. range. Low nutritional needs. L2226-Great for reds and late harvest fruit. Good for stuck fermentations. A fast fermentation rate with alcohol tolerance of 18%. Temp. range 15°-28°c (59°-83°F) Requires nitrogen during fermentation. M1-Excellent for whites. Adequet for Rose' and late harvest fruit. Temp. range of 12°-20°c (54°-68°F) Slow fermentation, requires a lot of nitrogen and tolerates alcohol to 16%. M2-Excellent for reds, whites and rose'. Medium fermentation speed but very active. 15% alcohol tolerance and a temp. range of 15°-30°c (59°-86°F) QA23-A fast fermentor excellent for whites. 16% alcohol tolerance, temp. range 15°-22°c (59°-70°F). Low nutrient requirements. Lalvin- 71B-1122, Excellent for reds, nouveaus and blushs with a moderate fermentation rate. Requires low nutrients and tolerates alcohol to 14%. Temp. range 15° thru 30°c (59°-86°F). Low foaming. EC-1118, Perfect for sparkling wines, dry whites, ciders, stuck and secondary fermentations. Needs little nutrients and tolerates alcohol to 18%. Very fast fermentation speed and is not a low foaming yeast. Temp. range 10°-30°c (50°-86°F). ICV D-47, For whites and blushes with a moderate fermentation speed with little foam. 14% alcohol tolerance with low nutrient requirements. Temp. tolerance of 15°-20°c (59°-68°F) ICV K1V-1116, Good for dry whites and aged reds, excellent for fresh fruits. Tolerates alcohol to 18% and has a moderate fermentation speed,low foaming. Low nutritional needs and has a temp. range of 10°-35°c (50°-95°F) Good for a stuck fermentation. RC 212, Excellent for young and aged reds. This yeast enhances varietal character with a moderate ferm. speed. Alcohol tolerance to 16% with high nutritional requirements. 20°-30°c (68°-86°F) temp. range. Low foaming. Red Star- Cote des Blancs-An excellent general purpose yeast for dry and non dry whites, blush and fruit wines. Produces low foam during fermentation. It's temp. range is 18°-30°c (64°-86°F) with a moderate fermentation. Alcohol tolerance 12-14% Not recommended for "in the bottle fermentations". Good for cuvees. Montrachet-A general all purpose yeast producing a neutral flavor active dry wine yeast. Good for dry whites and aged reds and great for dark berry fruit. Good for a stuck fermentation. Will produce firm sediment and has a good tolerance to alcohol of 13% and a temp. range of 15°-30°c (59°-86°F). Pasteur Champagne-Good to restart a stuck fermentation and has a high tolerance for alcohol. May be used for all wines and is used for sparkling wines too. Excellent for light fruits, melons and citrus. Alcohol tolerance 13-15%. Temp. range of 15°-30°c (59°-86°F) Great for use as a secondary fermentation. Premier Cuvee (Prise de Mousse)-Commonly used in the commercial production of many white wines, both dry and semi dry. Good for light fruits. Has a good tolerance to alcohol. Will ferment dry. Also effective for restarting a stuck fermentation. Good for sparkling whites. Temp. range 8°-35°c (45°-95°F) Alcohol tolerance to 18%. Red Pasteur-Perfect for young and full bodied reds and dark fruits. Brings out the fruity flavors. Can add robust to lighter bodied reds. It's temp. range is 18°-30°c (64°-86°F) 13-15% alcohol tolerance. Wyeast- 4021 Pasteur Champagne-Great for whites and some reds. A good yeast for a champagne base. Low foaming and ferments crisp and dry. Temperature range 13°-24°C (55°-75°F) Alcohol tolerance 17% 4028 Chateau Red-Good for young red or whites which have lots of fruitiness. Good for hardy reds that need aging. Low production of sulfur. 13°-32°C (55°-90°F) Temperature range. 14% alcohol tolerance. 4242 Chablis -xcellent for fruity wines, has a high ester formation. Allows the fruity flavor to come thru. Finishes fermentation slightly sweet and soft. 13°-24°C (55°-75°F) temperature range, Tolerance to alcohol 12-13% 4244 Chianti-For big and bold wines with a crisp finish. Temperature range 13°-24°C (55°-75°F), Alcohol Tolerance to 14% 4267 Bordeaux-For a very intense berry flavor in wines. Works well with high sugar contents. Has a 14% alcohol tolerance 15°-32°C (60°-90°F) 4767 Port-Mild fruitiness but well balanced. Has a mild toast and vanilla aroma. Excellent for dry reds and whites. Excellent for high sugar musts. Ferments very dry. Add brandy for your classic port wines. 16°-32°C (60°-90°F), Alcohol tolerance 14% 4783 Rudesheimer-Excellent for Rieslings. Fruity rich and creamy flavor. Will ferment dry yet leave a hint of sweetness. 13°-24°C (55°-75°F), 14% alcohol tolerance. 4946 Zinfandel-Excellent fermentator. Great for high sugar content musts such as Pinot Noir, Syrah and Zinfandel. Has an 18% alcohol tolerance and great for restarting a stuck fermentation. 16°-29°C (60°-85°F).