I did some digging to find out how this juice was actually making it to the bucket and details of the process. I was already pretty certain that some So2 was added and now confirmed it. But also confirmed they do NOT contain yeast except for Chile FRESCO juice buckets. Musto’s website gets pretty detailed. Regina/Pia have a concentrate process very similar to flash detentè- but the fresh juice pails do seem pretty straight forward from the site and info printed on the bucket. Regina California Fresh Pressed Grape Juice http://reginagrapejuice.com/products/index.html All of our fresh pressed juices begin at the crusher in our juice plant and winery. Once crushed and removed from the skins, the fresh juice is shipped for a short ride in refrigerated tanker trucks to our adjacent juice cellar. Here the juice is tested, blended, and carefully recorded by our enologist, then stored in computer controlled stainless steel refrigeration tanks. Along with our fresh pressed varietal juices, we offer a selection of varietal juice blends, generic red and generic white blends, and the option of ordering custom blends made to your specifications. Toro Negro Chilè Fresh Juices Grapes are selected at their optimum levels during the Chilean harvest each year. The grapes are then hand picked and crushed, de-stemmed and macerated in cold temperatures. Once the colour has been reached, the juices are pressed and filtered out to remove all seeds and pulp for a more clear product. Juice is cooled to -10C/14F to preserve its integrity. They are packaged and shipped to their North American destination. Musto Juice Q&A http://www.juicegrape.com/guide/articles/About_Grape_Juices. This site answers a lot of questions too. They are 100% adjusted for acid. It also says the readings may be misleading and acid will raise during the ferment. “This may be related to the acid source used in making adjustments.” they say. And I know for sure the Regina buckets list right on the side that it contains specifically citric acid. I assume they have their reasoning for adding citric. And I guess the amount (TA) isn’t as proportionate to the strength/ph that we are typically used to for wine. (And explains why my pre ferment adjustments a couple times in the past could not correct a TA without completely jacking up the ph or vice versa) Other smaller suppliers who offer their local juices are up front about the juice. Presque Isle Wines for instance say they handpick the grapes, press for quality not quantity, add some So2 and chill- not adjusting any acid or sugar or blending at all. If you’re making wine from fresh juice pails it is without a doubt beneficial to know all these specifics. And you really don’t need to mess with anything. I made em for years without any concern at all because it was so easy. You don’t need much winemaking knowledge to make a juice pail. You could probably never even take off the lid, set in the corner for 6 months then bottle and have a 50/50 shot to have something drinkable by the next season. But to make something worth bragging about I think this info is helpful.