-how much fine lees before racking?
From what I've read, gross lees drops between 24 and 72 hours after the end of fermentation. Once fermentation ceases let the wine rest 4 or 5 days and rack. Anything after that is fine lees.
I was originally taught to rack every 3 months during bulk aging. I no longer do that, as it's a waste of time and wine, it unnecessarily exposes the wine to air, and it produces no value.
My rule of thumb is for any action, I ask myself what I'm gaining from it. If I'm not gaining anything, I don't do it.
-how often would you rack in a 1 year bulk?
None. I'm in the "don't rack" camp and have gone as long as 16 months without racking.
Adding K-meta? For barrels, because of the evaporation, it's easy to add at topup time. I use 1/4 tsp K-meta for 19-23 liters of wine, stir gently to distribute, then topup. Carboys are harder to stir. A product is available that is like an Alka Seltzer, drop in the tablet and it dissolves, but it was a bit pricy when I looked at it.
Welcome to WMT! I believe Bryan @winemaker81
did an experiment to see how long it took different types of oak to stop adding flavor.
I conducted a oak stix experiment
a few years back, and came to the conclusion that cubes and the oak stix are expended at about 3 months. Other folks concur on that.
My usual product is cubes -- I add them and leave 'em until I rack, 3 to 12 months later. There is evidence that leaving the oak adjunct in longer has a mellowing effect.
For me, oak is a seasoning, not a flavoring, so I go lighter on oak.
There's a lot of "rules" for reds and whites and I'm still sorting what's a true rule and what's opinion. I dwell in the gray area of country wines so at least for now I do whatever I want.
Yup! Wine research is geared towards professionals, so home winemakers are not generally considered. The scale of the winery makes differences, e.g., a home winemaker producing 50 gallons per year has different issues than a winery producing 1,000, 10,000, or 1 million gallons per year. Affording a real laboratory makes a difference.
However, I'm in the camp that wine is an art, not a science. Regardless of how much science we apply, wine is a natural product and there are variables we don't even know about, and can't address much less control. So we do the best we can, and in most cases that works out well.